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THE ALANYA CASTLE
 
As the promontory where the fortress is situated is not easily accessible either from sea or land it was not inhabited continually throughout the history. It was surrounded by city walls first during the Hellenistic era and later new additions were constructed according to the demands of the time. The monumental fortress of Alanya is truly the sturdiest and the most splendid of all fortresses in Anatolia today. The oldest known inscriptions too, it may be assumed that the whole fortress was built by Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat y between 1226-1232.According to the inscription on it, the octagonal structure known today as the Red Tower (Kyzyl Kule) was the first structure built by the Seljuk's in Alanya and it is the key point of the fortress. The defense line that starts here, in accordance with the topography of the land ascends in a zigzagging manner although not always regularly. After a certain distance it joins a complex of buildings called Ehmedek, which was built, on top of a Hellenistic tower. The city wall, which turns southward after Ehmedek and descends, in order, to Adam Ataca?y Cilvarda Burnu, Arab Evliyasy Tower, Esad Tower and then by Tophane and Tersane, ends where it starts, at the red Tower.  Since the land between the Red Tower and Ehmedek is not so steep, in order to slow down attacks from the north, curtain walls were built outside the main city walls, in many places ditches were dug in the bedrock at the first lien of defense against attacks. The first lien of the fortress must have been considered secure since no such defense elements were used. One-hundred-forty towers are seen on top of the city walls that stretch a total of 6400 meters. These walls and towers, built with stone and mortar, had embrasures, holes to pour out hot oil and ramps to facilitate the movements of the soldiers in the fortress. The fortress was entered through the arched main gates with inscriptions on them. There were also smaller auxiliary gates. 

THE RED TOWER

The 33-metre tall tower was built in order to keep the harbor under surveillance at all times. The technique used in its construction, its floor plan and its construction, its floor plan and its durability make this monumental tower one of the most prominent Seljuk monument. The octagonal tower built on rocky terrain has a diameter of 29 meters. 

This durable thick mortar was used in almost all of the Seljuk towers. Although the stones in certain sections have crumbled down, the mortar still remains intact. The tower was named after Sultan Alaaddin Keykubat when it was first built, but later it was renamed the red tower due to the red bricks used in the construction. Many architectural pieces dating back to the ancient times were used in its construction. Especially the ancient column shafts used horizontally in the construction of the facade give the tower an unusual appearance.

THE SHIP YARD

Situated to the south of the Red Tower, right by the sea, there is a covered building where the big warships of the age were built in complete security. After Sinop on the black sea coast, the Seljuk's used this Shipyard as a naval base and sailed the Mediterranean. Following the construction of these dockyard, Alaaddin Keykubat y received the title "Sultan of the two seas "
The rectangular structure measures 40 by 57 meters and consists of vaulted galleries where ships were built. The galleries are connected to each other by four pointed-arches. It's facade and all the weight-carrying elements are built of large, cut stone blocks, and the vaults of baked bricks.

THE DAMLATAS CAVE

Located at the western foot of the Fortress of Alanya, the Damlata? Cave is one of those rare caves in Anatolia which is under management, it appeals to Turkish as well as foreign tourists since the air in the cave is beneficial to asthmatics, and it is easily accessible from the center of the city. It was discovered in 1948 quite by accident, it formed as semi-crystallized limestone from the Permian period of the Paleozoic Age was shaped by erosion over thousands of years. It is approximately 100 meters from the sea and in relation to below the entrance. There are many stalactites, stalagmites and columns decorating everywhere in the halls. Following the rumors that asthmatics benefited from breathing the air in the cave, scientists analyzed a sample of the air to verify the fact that the air was indeed beneficial to patients suffering from non-allergic asthma.
They found that the air in the cave contains 10to 12 times more carbon dioxide than normal air and has 90 to 100 % humidity. Temperature in the cave is 22 C. Both the radioactivity and ionization in the cave may contribute to the benefits derived from breathing the air in the cave.

THE ALARA CASTLE

A little further from the ?arapsa Hostel, at the and of the 9 km long road that separates northward from the main road is the Alara separates northward from the main road is the Alara Stream which runs through a deep, narrow valley. On one side of the stream, on a rocky cliff stands the Alara Fortress. Behind the fortress, this is steep cliff down to the stream. The Alara stream, which originates between the mountains covered with green frosts runs at he foot of the cliff below the fortress and serpentines towards the sea.

THE ALARA HOSTEL

Alara Hostel was the second hostel after ?arapsa on the way from Alaiye to Antalya and Konya. It is an unusual Seljuk monument since it also served a religious function as a place where certain dervishes lived in seclusion. The rectangular structure measures 38 by 50 meters and except for its esteem facade, it is constructed of cut stones. Various signs identifying the master stonecutters are seen on these cut stones. Rectangular and triangular pillars support the three facades of the structure. The plain portal with a low arch, in the middle of the northern facade, is the entrance to he hostel. Above the entrance there is an inscription of six lines in Arabic. Relieves of two schematic lion heads decorate the inscription.

IOTAPE (AYTAP)

The 33 km. long modern road that stretches along the coast between Alanya and Gazipa?a passes through the remains o Iotape. Although these ruins date back to the Roman and Byzantine eras it is possible that the city was named Iotape by the king Antiochus IV (38-72 A.D.) after his wife Queen lotape.It is known that during the reign of Antiochos IV, in some of the cities in the neighbouring state of Cilicia coins honoring Queen lotape and their sons Epiphanes and Callinicus were minted. Coins were also minted in Iotape during the Roman Empire from the time of Emperor Trajan the Roman Empire from the Emperor Valerian (270-275). On the front side of these coins is the bust of the emperor and on the backside is a description of Apollo, Tyche or Perseus.Iotape is situated by a small natural harbor on the western side of which there is a rocky cape 60 meters wide and 30 meters high. The cape, which is surrounded by walls, like a fortress, guarded the harbor against attacks from land and sea on the cape there are remains of Roman and Byzantine structures but they are in such a bad condition that it is impossible to have an idea about their floor plans.

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